NCERA218: Beef-Cow-Calf Nutrition and Management Committee
- October 01, 2011 to September 30, 2016
- Administrative Advisor(s):
(North Central Regional Association of Agricultural Experiment Station Directors)
Daniel Scholl (SD) - Research
- NIFA Reps:
Statement of Issue(s) and Justification:Statement of Issue(s) and Justification:
Of the 36.8 million beef cows and replacement heifers in the United States, 32.4% are located in the states comprising the North Central Region (NASS, 2010). Adding the additional 5.3 million cows and heifers found in Colorado, Wyoming, Louisiana, Florida, and Virginia, 46.9% of the beef cows and heifers in the United States are present in states with representation on the NCERA-087 Cow-Calf Nutrition and Management Committee (NASS, 2010). Beef cows are particularly well suited to profitably utilizing not only high quality pasture and hay crop forages, grown as part of sustainable cropping systems, but also crop residues, grain processing byproducts, and feed grains, typically found in abundance in the North Central Region. The 12 states that comprise the North Central Region also represent the top 12 states for fuel ethanol production account for over 90% of the fuel ethanol produced in the US (Nebraska Energy Office, 2010). While the transportation, storage, and utilization of ethanol byproducts in cow-calf production systems has recently received attention from the research community, as technology in the ethanol industry continues to evolve, the byproduct streams will as well. Alterations in the nutrient composition of these feeds can have profound effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle.
The cost of grazing lands across the North Central region continues to escalate and erode profitability. For example, from 2005 to 2009, the value of pastureland in South Dakota increased by 59.6% and 65.1% for native and tame pastures, respectively (Janssen and Pfleuger, 2009). In many cases, summer grazing costs are as great, or greater, than winter feeding costs. Including byproduct feeds and alternative forages in production systems may provide for more economical and sustainable sources of nutrients than rangeland forage in situations where pasture has become cost prohibitive.
Inefficiencies in reproductive and health management of calves, heifers, and cows also limit profitability of cow-calf enterprises. These inefficiencies may result from excessive or inadequate investments in management tools and/or improper application of management practices. In the next stage of the cattle cycle, prices for feeder calves will be likely be below the breakeven for many cow-calf producers, particularly in situations where the unit cost of production is high due to either low production costs, high input costs, or a combination of both.
Janssen, L., and B. Pflueger. 2009. Agricultural Land Market Trends 1991-2009. South Dakota Cooperative Extension Service C275.
National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2010. Cattle. Agricultural Statistics Board, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Available at: http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/nass/Catt//2010s/2010/Catt-01-29-2010.pdf.
Nebraska Energy Office. 2010. Ethanol Facilities Capacity by State and Plant. Available at: http://www.neo.ne.gov/statshtml/122.htm.
- Development of sustainable cow-calf production systems that utilize applied nutrition, reproduction and management strategies to: a. optimize production and economic efficiency, b. promote environmental stewardship, c. produce a safe and consistent supply of beef that meets consumer demands, and d. emphasize animal husbandry and well-being.
- Development of sustainable cow-calf production system outreach programs targeted toward industry stakeholders and the general public.
- Maintain and enhance formal and informal linkages which facilitate research, outreach programming and information sharing among committee members and with beef cattle producers and educators.
Procedures and Activities1.Development of sustainable cow-calf production systems that utilize applied nutrition, reproduction and management strategies to: a. Optimize production and economic efficiency through: 1. Utilization of alternative feeds and forages in cow-calf production systems (e.g. new co-product streams, alternative cropping systems, and chemical treatment of low quality forages), 2. Adoption of reproductive management strategies (e.g. synchronization, fixed time artificial insemination), 3. Grazing management practices (e.g. rotational grazing, variable stocking rate, residue grazing, forage use efficiency, measuring animal productivity and pasture characteristics, stockpiled forages), 4. Identification of superior genetics for feed intake (e.g. correlation of post-weaning intake with 2 year old and mature cow forage intake, characterizing sire efficiency, relationship of forage vs grain intake), 5. Storage and feeding systems to minimize feed waste (e.g. storage of wet co-products and forage or supplement feeding systems), 6. Implementation of alternative production practices (e.g. weaning time, creep feeding, natural/organic/grass-fed systems), 7. Greater understanding of how gestational cow nutrition and management (e.g. winter feeding strategies, degradable vs undegradable protein supplementation, timing relative to stage of production, and source of energy) affects: a) Cow performance and reproduction, b) Subsequent calf growth, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics, c) Subsequent heifer performance and reproduction.
b. Promotion of environmental stewardship through: 1. Reduced non-point source pollution of surface water via improved grazing and nutritional management practices (e.g. evaluation of site-specific strategies to reduce congregation of cattle in surface waters, and reducing nutrient input), 2. Greater understanding of flux and mitigation strategies of greenhouse gases associated with beef production systems (e.g. evaluate emissions from traditional and non-traditional feeds, emissions from high or low residual feed intake cattle, and carbon sequestration on pasture and cropland). c. Production of a safe and consistent supply of beef that meets consumer demands (e.g. vaccinating against e. coli and evaluation of hormone transfer from beef cattle) d. Emphasis on production practices to promote or enhance animal husbandry and well-being (e.g. pre-conditioning, creep feeding, weaning time/strategies).
2. Development of sustainable cow-calf production system outreach programs targeted toward industry stakeholders and the general public. To accomplish this objective, NCERA-87 will continue to host an annual symposium at the Midwest Section of American Society of Animal Sciences to address one or more of the proposed outcomes. Collaboration will be sought with other regional committees and beef industry organizations to disseminate Extension programming via electronic media. Members will also develop reference materials on relevant topics and current issues to be disseminated locally and via eXtension.
3. Maintain and enhance formal and informal linkages which facilitate research, outreach programming and information sharing among committee members and with beef cattle producers and educators. This objective will be accomplished via the annual committee meeting which rotates location among the participating states. The annual meeting features presentation of station reports of current research and extension programs from all participants. These reports are compiled and published for distribution to the participating institutions. The annual meeting also provides time for discussion of current issues facing the industry and strategies for addressing these issues. This planning session results in coordination of research and Extension programming across the participating institutions.
Expected Outcomes and Impacts:
- 1. Lower unit costs of production resulting from: a. utilization of alternative feeds (e.g. bioenergy co-products) and forages in cow-calf production systems, b. adoption of reproductive management strategies, c. grazing management practices, d. identification of superior genetics for feed intake, e. storage and feeding systems to minimize feed waste, f. implementation of alternative production practices (e.g. early weaning, creep feeding, and dry-lot production).
- 2. Greater understanding of how gestational cow nutrition and management affects: a. cow performance and reproduction, b. subsequent calf growth, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics, c. subsequent heifer performance and reproduction.
- 3. Enhanced environmental quality resulting from: a. reduced non-point source pollution of surface water through improved grazing and nutritional management practices, b. greater understanding of flux and mitigation strategies of greenhouse gases associated with beef production systems.
- 4. Enhanced understanding of animal husbandry through: a. increased public awareness of how current production practices affect beef cattle health and well-being, b. greater understanding among producers and educators of how production practices impact animal health and well-being.
Project Participation:Include a completed Appendix E form
To reach youth and adult audiences, NCERA 87 will: 1. Host an annual symposium at the Midwest Section of American Society of Animal Sciences to address one or more of the proposed outcomes. Presenters will be requested to write a proceedings paper and(or) a peer-reviewed manuscript on their subject. Proceedings papers will be published on the eXtension Beef Cattle Clearinghouse community of practice. 2. Collaborate with other regional committees and beef industry organizations to disseminate Extension programming via electronic media. 3. Develop reference materials on relevant topics and current issues to be disseminated locally and via eXtension.
The recommended Standard Governance for multistate research activities include the election of a Chair and a Secretary. All officers are to be elected for 1-year terms in each of the offices with the Secretary ascending to Chair in the subsequent year. Administrative guidance will be provided by an assigned Administrative Advisor and a USDA Representative.
Literature Cited:Anderson, R.V., R.J. Rasby, T.J. Klopfenstein, and R.T. Clark. 2005. An evaluation of production and economic efficiency of two beef systems from calving to harvest. J. Anim. Sci.83:694-704.
Clark, R. T., K. W. Creighton, H. H. Patterson, and T. N. Barrett. 2005. Economic and tax implications for managing beef replacement heifers. Prof. Anim. Sci. 21:164-173.
Fricke, P.M. and G.C. Lamb. 2005. Potential Applications and Pitfalls of Reproductive Ultrasonography in Bovine Practice. In: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice (In Press) Elsevier Inc. Philadelphia, PA.
Janovick, N.A., J.R. Russell, D.R. Strohbehn, and D.G. Morrical. 2004. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2503-2515.
Lardy, G. P., D. C. Adams, T. J. Klopfenstein, and H. H. Patterson. 2004. Building beef cow nutritional programs with the 1996 NRC beef cattle requirements model. J. Anim. Sci. 82:E83-92.
Spiehs, M. J., M. H. Whitney, and G. C. Shurson. 2002. Nutrient database for distillers dried grains with solubles produced from new ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota. J. Anim Sci. 80: 2639-2645.
Stokka, G. L. and G. P. Lardy. 2005. Health Management Programs: Integrating Biological and Management Principles in Analysis, Design and Implementation of Programs for the Two-Year Old Beef Cows. In Press. Prof. Anim. Sci.
Tjardes, K. and C. Wright. 2002. Feeding corn distillers co-products to beef cattle. SDSU Extension Extra. ExEx 2036, August 2002. Animal and Range Sciences.
Whittier, J. C., G. P. Lardy, and C.R. Johnson. 2005. Pre-Calving Nutrition and Management Programs for Two-Year-Old Beef Cows: A Review. In Press. Prof. Anim. Sci.
s:/James G Linn
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