WERA_OLD077: Managing Invasive Weeds in Wheat
- October 01, 2004 to September 30, 2009
- Administrative Advisor(s):
Lee E. Sommers
- NIFA Reps:
James V. Parochetti
Robert M. Nowierski
Statement of Issue(s) and Justification:Invasive weeds currently infest more than 20 million acres of winter wheat in the Western United States, costing producers over $500 million in yield losses annually (T. White, 2003. Unpublished survey data). Heavy infestations of weeds may result in complete crop failure while lighter populations decrease yield, increase dockage, and decrease harvesting efficiency. Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) remain troublesome weeds in winter wheat production regions. However, feral rye (Secale cereale), ryegrass species (Lolium spp.), cheat (Bromus secalinus), and rip gut brome (Bromus diandrus) also threaten the economic viability of winter wheat production.
Turf and forage ryegrass varieties are very competitive for resources and can quickly invade desirable vegetation and crops, like wheat, if not properly managed (Anonymous 2002). Various selective herbicides are available to control ryegrass in conventional wheat, but few are registered in dual-purpose wheat. In the Southern Great Plains, as much as 80% of wheat is grazed during the growing season (Pinchak et al. 1996). Grazing restrictions severely limit or prohibit the use of most effective herbicides in dual-purpose wheat.
In 1987, ALS-inhibitor herbicide resistant ryegrass was documented in Oregon and since then has been confirmed in eight additional states (Heap 2004). Subsequently, resistance to other herbicide classes has been documented in the United States (Tucker 2002; DePrado et al. 2000; Moss et al. 1993; Stanger and Appleby 1989). In other countries glyphosate resistant ryegrass as well as multiple herbicide resistance has been discovered (Kuk et al. 2000; Roman et al. 2003). Current economic losses from ryegrass infestations exceed $30 million in the Western United States due to reduced yield, increased grain dockage, and lower land values (T. White, 2003. Unpublished survey data).
Rye is grown as a crop in many regions of North America. However, it can become a troublesome weed for wheat producers. Feral rye, commonly referred to as cereal, winter, common, or volunteer rye, is found in various wheat production areas throughout the Western United States (Lyon et al. 2002). Currently, there is no commercially acceptable way to selectively control feral rye in conventional (non-herbicide tolerant) wheat. Reduced profits often exceed $26 million in the Western United States due to lower yields, dockage, and reduced land value (T. White, 2003. Unpublished survey data).
In order to develop best management practices for the control of feral rye, ryegrass, and other invasive weeds in wheat, a thorough understanding of weed biology, ecology, and genetics is required. Sharing research information and coordinating research and extension efforts among weed scientists in the western United States will accelerate understanding of invasive weeds and their control and facilitate the rapid transmission of new knowledge to growers. Currently, management information regarding ryegrass and feral rye is limited. The overall goal of this coordinating committee is to ensure that producers have the most accurate, non-biased information possible for economical and sustainable management of feral rye, ryegrass, and other invasive weeds in wheat.
- Coordinate research regarding the biology, ecology, and genetics of ryegrass, feral rye, and other invasive weeds in wheat.
- Coordinate the evaluation of new management and wheat breeding technologies for controlling invasive weeds, development of best management practices (BMPs), and assessment of herbicide resistance management strategies in various cropping systems
- Develop educational outreach programs based on research findings regarding invasive weeds in wheat, including programs initiated by the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program, targeting producers, crop consultants, extension personnel, or professional scientists
- Merge information from research studies into an effective technology transfer program to illustrate how these invasive species can affect net profits and to reduce the economic impact of ryegrass, feral rye and other invasive weed species in wheat
- Conduct surveys to monitor the extent and spread of weeds in wheat through surveys or similar methods
Procedures and Activities
Expected Outcomes and Impacts:
- Increase knowledge regarding cultural control practices, seed dormancy and longevity, genetics, and population dynamics of invasive weeds, including feral rye and ryegrass. Additional information regarding plant biology and ecology will allow the development of improved management strategies with an ultimate goal of reducing the economic impact of invasive weeds in wheat. Coordinated research efforts will include: (1)conducting regional integrated management projects to evaluate the effect of multiple control practices on invasive weed populations; (2) developing methods to manage the existing soil seed bank and eliminate outside seed sources and; (3) establishing BMPs that incorporate economic and resistance management components
- The scientific knowledge base for invasive weeds in wheat will be expanded through the publication of peer reviewed journal articles and the development of accessible databases. Additional biology, ecology, and genetics information related to ryegrass, feral rye, or other invasive weeds in wheat will provide more accurate control techniques that can be integrated into sustainable integrated management programs.
- Growers will understand how to use herbicide-resistant crop technology as part of an integrated weed management program to maintain control of invasive weeds and prolong the utility of the technology in various cropping systems. Producers must also understand the importance of resistance management in conventional and herbicide-resistant cropping systems.
- Enhance growers'' understanding of herbicide-resistant crop technology as part of an integrated weed management program to prolong availability of weed control approaches.
- Reduce the economic impact of invasive weeds in wheat through grower adoption of improved control strategies.
Project Participation:Include a completed Appendix E form
Project activity in the past has resulted in several collective, interdependent activities. Some of these activities include the development and successful implementation of the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program (www.jointedgoatgrass.org), comprehensive review papers on jointed goatgrass and glyphosate tolerant wheat, several multi-state research articles, and the development of local education programs on weed problems in wheat. Future activities will continue to build on the foundation set by the program in past years. Review papers will be developed on other invasive weeds in wheat, including feral rye and ryegrass. Regional management workshops will be conducted in the Great Plains, Intermountain states, and Pacific Northwest to educate participants on Best Management Practices (BMPs) in wheat.
Information regarding the biology and management of invasive weeds like ryegrass and feral rye will be provided to research and extension personnel, crop advisors/consultants, and growers in each state. Education on issues such as managing the use of herbicide-resistant crops and preventing or delaying the onset of herbicide resistant in all invasive weeds in wheat will also be important.
The most critical aspect of this research effort is the ability to effectively transfer the important research results for producers to enhance their current weed management programs. Methods of technology transfer would include online information databases, informational meetings, extension publications, field tours, popular press articles, and other media sources. Research findings will be presented and published in referred journal publications, research reports, as proceedings of regional and national weed science societies, or as a thesis or dissertation.
Chair: 1. Maintain a liaison with the Administrative Advisor, CSREES Advisor, and other organizations with related interests. 2. Arrange for the annual meeting (room, overhead/slide projector, etc.) at site chosen by the membership. 3. Solicit items of business, prepare agenda, and preside at the annual meeting. 4. Appoint subcommittees as necessary to carry out WCC-77 business. Recording Secretary: Record and submit minutes of the annual meeting to the Administrative Advisor and member participants. To provide continuity in leadership, the recording secretary becomes chair and a new individual is elected to serve as recording secretary.
Subcommittees: No standing subcommittees are employed and subcommittees are appointed as necessary by the chair to accomplish specific tasks.
Literature Cited:Anonymous. 2002. Italian Ryegrass. USDA-NRCS Plant Fact Sheet. Current internet location: http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_profile.cgi&symbol=LOPEM2 Accessed April 14, 2004.
DePrado, R., J. Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J. Menendez, J. Gasquez, J. W. Gronwald, and R. Gimenez-Espinosa. 2000. Resistance to acetyl CoA carboxylase-inhibiting herbicides in Lolium multiflorum. Weed Sci. 48:311-318.
Heap, I. 2004. International survey of herbicide resistant weeds. Current internet location: www.weedscience.org Accessed April 14, 2004.
Kuk Y. I., N. R. Burgos, and R. E. Talbert. 2000. Cross- and multiple resistance of diclofop-resistant Lolium spp. Weed Sci. 48:412-419.
Lyon, D. J., R. N. Klein, and G. A. Wicks. 2002. Rye control in winter wheat. Univ. of Neb. Coop. Ext., NEBGUIDE. G02-1483-A, 1484p.
Moss, S. R., J. Horswell, R. J. F. Williams, and M. M. Ndoping. 1993. Implications of herbicide resistant Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass). Asp. Appl. Biol. 35:53-60.
Pinchak, W. E., W. D. Worrall, S. P Caldwell, L. J. Hunt, H. J. Worral, and M. Conoly. 1996. Interrelationships of forage and steer growth dynamics on wheat pasture. J. Range Manage. 49:126-130.
Roman, E.S., L. Vargas, M.A. Rizzardi. 2003. Evaluation of Glyphosate Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) Current internet location: www.weedscience.org/in.asp. Accessed on April 25, 2004.
Stanger, C. E. and A. P. Appleby. 1989. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) accessions tolerant to diclofop. Weed Sci. 37: 350-352.
s:/Lee E. Sommers
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