POSSIBLY RELATED PROJECTS IDENTIFIED THROUGH CRIS SEARCH
S-273: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF COMPREHENSIVE AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEMS MODELS
S-273 is the precursor to the proposed TMDL related project. The goals of S-273 were to modify, improve and evaluate under a variety of land uses and geographic areas existing hydrologic/chemical/sediment models incorporating biotic and economic components; to develop new and improved systems to integrate existing data sources to enhance the applications of the comprehensive models; and to collect and assemble comprehensive data bases necessary for model development and evaluation. This project has provided a firm foundation for the proposed project because the S-273 participants have gained experience with many of the modeling tools being used for TMDL development. The principal product of this project was a report comparing the strengths and limitations of various models used for watershed assessment.
S-275: Animal Manure And Waste Utilization, Treatment, And Nuisance Avoidance For A Sustainable Agriculture
The goals of this project are to develop management tools, strategies, and systems for land application of animal manures that optimize productivity and are compatible with sustained land and water quality; to develop and evaluate constructed wetlands, riparian zones, and other vegetative systems for treating animal wastewaters; to develop and refine physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes and engineering systems for management of manures and other wastes; and to develop and evaluate feeding systems for their potential to alter the excretion of environmentally-sensitive nutrients by livestock. All of the above objectives are pertinent to the proposed project as livestock have been identified as one of the major sources of water quality impairment (fecal coliform, sediment, benthic) in agricultural areas. Results from S-275 will be useful in developing TMDLs in watersheds with significant livestock populations.
S-283: Develop And Assess Precision Farming Technology And Its Economic And Environmental Impacts
Objectives of this project are to adapt and develop sensors and data acquisition technologies for precision farming; to adapt, develop, and assess methodology an equipment for variable-rate control of inputs to precision farming systems; to develop methodologies and analytical tools for optimum utilization of inputs in precision farming systems; and to assess the economic and environment effects of precision farming. Precision farming has been proposed as a BMP for several water quality impairments (nutrients, pesticides, fecal coliform, etc.). Results of this project should enable better assessment of the potential effectiveness of precision farming in reducing edge of field losses of various agricultural pollutants. This information is critical in the development of TMDL implementation plans using precision farming as a BMP.
S-297: Soil Microbial Taxonomic and Functional Diversity as Affected by Land Use and Management
Objectives of this project are to determine the geographic and temporal variability of E. coli ribotypes in the United States; to determine relationships among microbial taxonomic and functional diversity, contaminant bioavailability, and remediation rates for different organic-contaminated soils; and to characterize taxonomic and functional diversity of bacteria and mycorrhizae in disturbed lands and urban landscapes. Information from this project will be invaluable in assessing TMDL development tools used in developing TMDLs for waters with fecal coliform impairments, the second leading impairment in the US.
IEG-73: Classifying Soils for Solute Transport as Affected by Soil Properties and Landscape Positions
The objectives of this information exchange group are to share information regarding research needs and findings on soil properties, processes, and soil and water quality problems unique to the southeast United States; analyze and to synthesize research results related to understanding, predicting and managing water and chemical movement in unsaturated soils; and to compile research data on water flow and chemical transport on the soils in the southeastern United States grouped according to the major land resource area classification. Information from this project would be very useful in characterizing interflow and groundwater contributions during TMDL development.
SERA-IEG-17: Minimizing Agricultural Phosphorus Runoff Losses for Protection of the Water Resource
The overall goal is to develop BMPs for minimizing P loss from agricultural activities, with special emphasis on animal waste. While research is an important component of this project, information exchange between applied researchers, state extension specialists, industry representatives, and representatives from state and federal agencies. Project sub-objectives are to develop a method of identifying P sensitive water resources; to develop BMPs that limit P in the runoff; to develop a manure application strategy based on P and N; to identify cut off levels of soil test P for benchmark soils; and to develop a field level P indexing procedure for assessing individual fields as to their potential for P loss. Information related to these objectives will be very helpful in developing TMDL implementation plans for nutrient and possibly fecal coliform impaired streams.
SERA-IEG-20: Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture
The primary mission of the SCTSCA is to provide a medium for exchanging information about conservation tillage and related technology between and among researchers, extension personnel, NRCS personnel, crop consultants, agrochemical companies and farmers. The primary goal of most conservation tillage research is to develop improved technology to increase yields and/or profitability of agricultural crops and livestock while maintaining or improving the quality of soil and water resources available for agricultural, domestic and recreational uses. The overall objective of the SCTCSA is to expand the conservation tillage systems in the South for the purpose of controlling erosion and reducing environmental degradation. Conservation tillage is an important BMP for reducing sediment and possibly nutrient losses. Information obtained from the SCTCSA will be useful in quantifying the effectiveness of various types of conservation tillage used for TMDL planning.
SERA-IEG-31: Economics and Management of Risk in Agriculture and Natural Resources
The project provides a scientific/professional forum to facilitate the exchange of theoretical and methodological approaches to risk analysis, and to nurture the development of original concepts and preliminary research efforts related to agriculture and natural resources. Specific focus issues will include micro-level modeling of natural resource and environmental risk issues, including ground- and surface-water pollution, and increased emphasis on agricultural sustainability, and increased conflicts in resource demands between agricultural and competing users; firm level risk management modeling, including the production, financial, marketing and environmental impacts and risks associated with new technology and the potential benefits resulting from improved access to information; economic theory and the behavioral foundations of decision making under uncertainty, in risk assessment, asymmetric risk attitudes, and state-dependent utility; and the impact of public policy on the risk environment of individuals, firms, and sectors within exogenous trade shocks, food safety regulations, changes in financial and farm insurance institutions, and resource pricing policies. This information is critical to the TMDL development project because TMDLs by law must be economically and socially feasible.
NC-218: Assessing Nitrogen Mineralization and Other Diagnostic Criteria to Refine Nitrogen Rates for Crops and Minimize Losses
Objectives of this project that are important to the proposed project are to develop and evaluate rapid tests for soil N mineralization capacity across the various soils and climatic regimes of the region and to determine the feasibility and most appropriate conditions for use of these tests; to conduct fundamental work to enhance current understanding of the role of active C and N pools in cropping systems and to predict net N mineralization as influenced by C sequestration management; and to develop a guidance document for agricultural professionals focusing on N best management practices and optimum rate determination for the region. Adoption of proposed nutrient water quality standards will increase the number of nitrogen impaired waters requiring TMDLs. Information from this project will be useful in quantifying the effectiveness of nutrient management BMPs used with TMDLs.
NC-230 Integrating Biophysical Functions of Riparian Systems with Management Practices and Policies
Objectives of this project are to assess biophysical functions of riparian management as they relate to management practices for increasing or sustaining on-site and downstream water quality; to evaluate alternative riparian management systems in terms of cost effectiveness, water quality benefits, and adoption by managers; and to develop integrated tools needed for land management and policy development, to select and enhance adoption of preferred riparian management systems. Most TMDLs that have been developed during the past two to three years call for the protection of existing and reestablishment of non-functioning riparian zones. Data on the effectiveness of riparian zones for water quality protection and the development of tools for riparian zone assessment are essential to the TMDL program. We will use information from this project on riparian zones in the testing, development, and assessment of watershed-scale TMDL planning tools.
NCR-183 Utilization of Animal Manure and Other Organic Residuals in Agriculture
This project is compiling and publishing information on manure and organic management throughout the North Central region to improve management of manure and residuals. In addition they are developing a computer program to assist Extension personnel and crop/livestock producers in applying organic residuals to crop land in a beneficial and an environmentally safe manner. This information will be useful in the development of nutrient and fecal coliform TMDLs.
NCR-195 Mississippi River Watershed Nutrient Sources and Control
Objectives are to serve as a central information source and coordinating body for agricultural issues relating to nutrient loading from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico; to coordinate, promote and facilitate multi-state research, educational and extension programs to help individual states deal with their impacts of surface water loading from nutrients; and to continuously review current knowledge and technologies with respect to their impact on nutrient management for water quality.
NCT-181 Socio-Economic and Resource Management Implication of Agricultural Land Use Changes
Facilitates the sharing of research procedures, data, protocols, and results with a diverse set of researchers who are mutually interested in agricultural land management programs and incentives for program participation. Summarizes environmental programs affecting agricultural land management efforts such as the Title III of the 1996 Farm Bill, Clean Water Act, Environmental Conservation Acreage Reserve Program (including the Environmental Quality Incentive Program, the Wetland Reserve Program and the Conservation Reserve Program), the Coastal Zone Management Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program and the Conservation Compliance Program. Evaluates environmental benefits indices, benefit-cost analysis, and other planning tools in terms of their effectiveness in measuring: off-farm impacts of land withdrawn from agriculture including socioeconomic effects; the impacts of nonuniform (heterogeneous land bases) withdrawals; the evaluation of the cost effectiveness of on-farm decision process/choices; the impacts of land use changes on ecosystem services and the noncommodity aspects of rural landscapes; and the implication for proposed changes given different mixes of privately and publicly owned land. Defines methods to manage effectively lands involved in conservation programs in order to integrate environmental objectives and economic uses including the development of criteria that leads to sustainable land uses. The above issues are critical to the TMDL process and we will attempt to cooperate with members of this project.
W-082 Reducing the Potential for Environmental Contamination by Pesticides and Other Organic Chemicals
Objectives of this projects are to characterize and quantify the basic chemical and biological processes controlling the behavior of pesticides, other organic chemicals, and microorganisms in soil, water, and air; to integrate chemical and biological process information for use in models applicable across different spatial and temporal scales; and to provide stakeholders with tools for developing strategies to ensure sustainable agriculture and to protect natural resources. Models currently used for TMDL development poorly represent fate and transport of pesticides and other organic chemicals in upland areas. We will attempt to cooperate with members of this regional project in the development and evaluation of models for simulating chemical transport in upland areas outside of the western region.
W-133 Benefits and Costs of Resource Policies Affecting Public and Private Land
This project is addressing the benefits and costs of agro-environmental policies and may provide useful information on the economics of TMDL implementation.
W-188 Improved Characterization and Quantification of Flow and Transport Processes in Soils
This project is investigating relationships between flow and transport properties or processes and the spatial and temporal scales at which these are observed; developing and evaluating instrumentation and methods of analysis for characterization of flow and transport at different scales; and developing scale-appropriate methodologies for the management of soil and water resources.
WCC-103 Nutrient Management and Water Quality
Goals of this project include improving nutrient management recommendations based on soil, water and plant analysis results and other management strategies in the western region; developing more effective use of soil, water, plant, compost, etc. analysis information in reducing environmental impact of nutrient application, assessing nutrient cycling in natural and managed systems, improving nutrient use efficiency to increase profitability, developing improved nutrient sampling methodology and recommendations; and improving regional laboratory analytical accuracy and precision.
WCC-205 Integrated Water Quality Research and Extension Programs for the Western US
Pertinent project's goals are to promote collaboration on development of educational programs which encourage individual responsibility for pollution prevention and water quality protection through the use of Farm*A*Syst/Home*A*Syst educational materials; to foster water quality monitoring and riparian area management through development of common guidelines, protocols, and training materials; to produce subregional (Northwest, Southwest and Pacific Island) recommendations on the management and use of livestock waste in agricultural systems, which increases development of comprehensive nutrient management plans in the west.
Hatch Project Single Land Use Watersheds for Pathogen TMDLs(University of Georgia)
The objectives of this project are to determine the loads of pathogen indicator bacteria in typical Georgia Piedmont streams that drain single land use (agriculture, silviculture, and suburban) watersheds; to develop a host origin library of Escherichia coli (E. coli) ribotypes from warm-blooded animals and to use this library to identify sources of fecal contamination in the single land use watersheds; and develop quantitative relationships between pathogen loads and land use characteristics and identify sources of E. coli so that accurate TMDL assessments can be made in multiple land use watersheds. PIs associated with this Hatch project are participants in the proposed project.
Hatch Project Development of Tools for Assessing Environmental Impact and Remediation of Agricultural and Development Activities on a Watershed Scale (North Carolina State University)
Objectives of this project are to update the ANSWERS and ANSWERS-2000 models to take advantage of the newest compilers and language extensions, component relationships, and data input/output possibilities; to build or adapt interfaces for the ANSWERS and ANSWERS-2000 models that allow users to construct accurate input files and interpret the extensive output information; locate, assess, and, if possible, include in the enhanced modeling structure those data bases that are publicly accessible and can be used to supply input, calibration, or validation data for the modeling system; integrate several other physically-based watershed-scale models, including both surface and subsurface hydrology capabilities, into the modeling structure to produce a robust, broadly descriptive system that allows planners to better understand and apply TMDL designs or other management strategies for improving impaired waters; and collaboratively develop a general tool that will allow users to apply state-of-the-art models, global data bases, and intelligent I/O interfaces through a standard Web browser. The objectives of this Hatch project coincide with the objectives of the proposed project and the PI on this project will be a participant in this project.
Hatch Project Modeling the Transport of Agricultural Chemicals and Wastes at the Watershed Scale(Texas A&M University)
Theobjective of this Hatch project is to evaluate the impact of production agriculture on water quality. Field studies will evaluate the fate of agricultural chemicals and wastes applied to the land. Contaminate transport rates in soil, runoff, surface water and groundwater will be determined. In addition, the transport mechanisms will be studied. Laboratory experiments will be used to determine the physical properties of samples obtained in the field. In addition, laboratory experiments will also be used to evaluate contaminate transport mechanisms. Computer models will be used simulate water movement and chemical transport from agricultural fields. Both field and laboratory data will be used to validate and calibrate computer model simulations. The goals of this project are similar to those of the proposed project and the PI of this Hatch project is a participant in the proposed project.